Healthiness of survival and quality of death among oldest old in China using fuzzy sets.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate healthiness of survival and quality of death among oldest-old Chinese. METHODS: Grade of Membership (GoM) method is applied to fulfill our goals using a nationwide longitudinal survey in China. RESULTS: GoM method generates six pure types/profiles for healthiness of survival and five profiles/types for quality of death. The authors combine these 11 profiles into 4 groups. On average, a Chinese oldest old from 1998 to 2000 had 48% probability of experiencing healthy survival, with 30% experiencing unhealthy survival, 11% having nonsuffering death, and 11% having suffering death. Similar memberships of dying with nonsuffering conditions are found across ages among the decedents. Men have a higher probability of being in healthy survival and nonsuffering death as compared to women. Marriage, high social connections, nonsmoking, and regular exercise are important contributors to healthy survival and quality of death. DISCUSSION: It is possible to live to ages 100 and beyond without much suffering.
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