Synaptotagmin IX regulates Ca2+-dependent secretion in PC12 cells.
Synaptotagmin (Syt) I-deficient phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines show normal Ca(2+)-dependent norepinephrine (NE) release (Shoji-Kasai, Y., Yoshida, A., Sato, K., Hoshino, T., Ogura, A., Kondo, S., Fujimoto, Y., Kuwahara, R., Kato, R., and Takahashi, M. (1992) Science 256, 1821-1823). To identify an alternative Ca(2+) sensor, we searched for other Syt isoforms in Syt I-deficient PC12 cells and identified Syt IX, an isoform closely related to Syt I, as an abundantly expressed dense-core vesicle protein. Here we show that Syt IX is required for the Ca(2+)-dependent release of NE from PC12 cells. Antibodies directed against the C2A domain of either Syt IX or Syt I inhibited Ca(2+)-dependent NE release in permeable PC12 cells indicating that both Syt proteins function in dense-core vesicle exocytosis. Our results support the idea that Syt family proteins that co-reside on secretory vesicles may function cooperatively and redundantly as potential Ca(2+) sensors for exocytosis.
Fukuda, M; Kowalchyk, JA; Zhang, X; Martin, TFJ; Mikoshiba, K
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