Focusing of shock waves induced by optical breakdown in water.
The focusing of laser-generated shock waves by a truncated ellipsoidal reflector was experimentally and numerically investigated. Pressure waveform and distribution around the first (F(1)) and second foci (F(2)) of the ellipsoidal reflector were measured. A neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser of 1046 nm wavelength and 5 ns pulse duration was used to create an optical breakdown at F(1), which generates a spherically diverging shock wave with a peak pressure of 2.1-5.9 MPa at 1.1 mm stand-off distance and a pulse width at half maximum of 36-65 ns. Upon reflection, a converging shock wave is produced which, upon arriving at F(2), has a leading compressive wave with a peak pressure of 26 MPa and a zero-crossing pulse duration of 0.1 mus, followed by a trailing tensile wave of -3.3 MPa peak pressure and 0.2 mus pulse duration. The -6 dB beam size of the focused shock wave field is 1.6 x 0.2 mm(2) along and transverse to the shock wave propagation direction. Formation of elongated plasmas at high laser energy levels limits the increase in the peak pressure at F(2). General features in the waveform profile of the converging shock wave are in qualitative agreement with numerical simulations based on the Hamilton model.
Sankin, GN; Zhou, Y; Zhong, P
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