The role of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 in regulating innate immunity.
The mechanisms that control TLR-induced responses, including endotoxin tolerance, have been not well understood. The tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) is a tumor suppressor that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We show in this study that deficiency of TSC1 results in enhanced activation of not only mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but also JNK1/2, following LPS stimulation in macrophages. TSC1-deficient macrophages produce elevated proinflammatory cytokines and NO in response to multiple TLR ligands. Such enhanced TLR-induced responses can be inhibited by reducing mTORC1 and JNK1/2 activities with chemical inhibitors or small hairpin RNA, suggesting that TSC1 negatively controls TLR responses through both mTORC1 and JNK1/2. The impact of TSC1 deficiency appeared not limited to TLRs, as NOD- and RIG-I/MDA-5-induced innate responses were also altered in TSC1-deficient macrophages. Furthermore, TSC1 deficiency appears to cause impaired induction of endotoxin tolerance in vitro and in vivo, which is correlated with increased JNK1/2 activation and can be reversed by JNK1/2 inhibition. Our results reveal a critical role of TSC1 in regulating innate immunity by negative control of mTORC1 and JNK1/2 activation.
Pan, H; O'Brien, TF; Zhang, P; Zhong, X-P
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