Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.

Published online

Journal Article

Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia), and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane). This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Litvintseva, AP; Carbone, I; Rossouw, J; Thakur, R; Govender, NP; Mitchell, TG

Published Date

  • May 11, 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 6 / 5

Start / End Page

  • e19688 -

PubMed ID

  • 21589919

Pubmed Central ID

  • 21589919

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1932-6203

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1371/journal.pone.0019688

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States