Whole-blood immunoassay facilitated by gold nanoshell-conjugate antibodies.
In this chapter, we outline a simple procedure using gold nanoshells as a substrate for an immunoassay that is capable of detecting subnanogram levels of analyte within whole blood on the order of minutes. Unique to metallic nanoshells is their optical tunability over a large range of wavelengths. We describe the design of nanoshells that attenuate light strongly in a region of light where blood does not (i.e., the near infrared [IR]), permitting optical detection of nanoshells in whole blood. We also describe a procedure to monitor the analyte-induced aggregation of antibody-conjugated nanoshells in whole blood using near-IR light. The immunoassay is fast and specific, requires no separation/purification steps, is simple to perform (mix and sit), and uses common laboratory equipment for detection (spectrophotometer). Preparation of the antibody-nanoshell conjugates is described, along with the design and optimization of the whole-blood nanoshell-based immunoassay system.
Hirsch, LR; Halas, NJ; West, JL
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