Deletion of GSK3β in D2R-expressing neurons reveals distinct roles for β-arrestin signaling in antipsychotic and lithium action.
Several studies in rodent models have shown that glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β) plays an important role in the actions of antispychotics and mood stabilizers. Recently it was demonstrated that GSK3β through a β-arrestin2/protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) signaling complex regulates dopamine (DA)- and lithium-sensitive behaviors and is required to mediate endophenotypes of mania and depression in rodents. We have previously shown that atypical antipsychotics antagonize DA D2 receptor (D2R)/β-arrestin2 interactions more efficaciously than G-protein-dependent signaling, whereas typical antipsychotics inhibit both pathways with similar efficacy. To elucidate the site of action of GSK3β in regulating DA- or lithium-sensitive behaviors, we generated conditional knockouts of GSK3β, where GSK3β was deleted in either DA D1- or D2-receptor-expressing neurons. We analyzed these mice for behaviors commonly used to test antipsychotic efficacy or behaviors that are sensitive to lithium treatment. Mice with deletion of GSK3β in D2 (D2GSK3β(-/-)) but not D1 (D1GSK3β(-/-)) neurons mimic antipsychotic action. However, haloperidol (HAL)-induced catalepsy was unchanged in either D2GSK3β(-/-) or D1GSK3β(-/-) mice compared with control mice. Interestingly, genetic stabilization of β-catenin, a downstream target of GSK3β, in D2 neurons did not affect any of the behaviors tested. Moreover, D2GSK3β(-/-) or D1GSK3β(-/-) mice showed similar responses to controls in the tail suspension test (TST) and dark-light emergence test, behaviors which were previously shown to be β-arrestin2- and GSK3β-dependent and sensitive to lithium treatment. Taken together these studies suggest that selective deletion of GSK3β but not stabilization of β-catenin in D2 neurons mimics antipsychotic action without affecting signaling pathways involved in catalepsy or certain mood-related behaviors.
Urs, NM; Snyder, JC; Jacobsen, JPR; Peterson, SM; Caron, MG
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