Characterization of guanosine diphospho-D-mannose dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Structural analysis by limited proteolysis.
Alginate is believed to be a major virulence factor in the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Guanosine diphospho-D-mannose dehydrogenase (GDPmannose dehydrogenase, EC 188.8.131.52) is a key enzyme in the alginate biosynthetic pathway which catalyzes the oxidation of guanosine diphospho-D-mannose (GDP-D-mannose) to GDP-D-mannuronic acid. In this paper, we report the structural analysis of GMD by limited proteolysis using three different proteases, trypsin, submaxillary Arg-C protease, and chymotrypsin. Treatment of GMD with these proteases indicated that the amino-terminal part of this enzyme may fold into a structural domain with an apparent molecular mass of 25-26 kDa. Multiple proteolytic cleavage sites existed at the carboxyl-terminal end of this domain, indicating that this segment may represent an exposed region of the protein. Initial proteolysis also generated a carboxyl-terminal fragment with an apparent molecular mass of 16-17 kDa which was further digested into smaller fragments by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The proteolytic cleavage sites were localized by partial amino-terminal sequencing of the peptide fragments. Arg-295 was identified as the initial cleavage site for trypsin and Tyr-278 for chymotrypsin. Catalytic activity of GMD was totally abolished by the initial cleavage. However, binding of the substrate, GDP-D-mannose, increased stability toward proteolysis and inhibited the loss of enzyme activity. GMP and GDP (guanosine 5'-mono- and diphosphates) also blocked the initial cleavage, but NAD and mannose showed no effect. These results suggest that binding of the guanosine moiety at the catalytic site of GMD may induce a conformational change that reduces the accessibility of the cleavage sites to proteases. Binding of [14C]GDP-D-mannose to the amino-terminal domain was not affected by the removal of the carboxyl-terminal 16-kDa fragment. Furthermore, photoaffinity labeling of GMD with [32P]arylazido-beta-alanine-NAD followed by proteolysis demonstrated that the radioactive NAD was covalently linked to the amino-terminal domain. These observations imply that the amino-terminal domain (25-26 kDa) contains both the substrate and cofactor binding sites. However, the carboxyl-terminal fragment (16-17 kDa) may possess amino acid residues essential for catalysis. Thus, proteolysis had little effect on substrate binding, but totally eliminated catalysis. These biochemical data are in complete agreement with amino acid sequence analysis for the existence of substrate and cofactor sites of GMD. A linear peptide map of GMD was constructed for future structure/functional studies.
Roychoudhury, S; Chakrabarty, K; Ho, YK; Chakrabarty, AM
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