Revealing the impact of catalyst phase transition on carbon nanotube growth by in situ Raman spectroscopy.
Journal Academic Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
The physical state of the catalyst and its impact on the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is the subject of a long-standing debate. We addressed it here using in situ Raman spectroscopy to measure Fe and Ni catalyst lifetimes during the growth of individual SWNTs across a wide range of temperatures (500-1400 °C). The temperature dependence of the Fe catalyst lifetimes underwent a sharp increase around 1100 °C due to a solid-to-liquid phase transition. By comparing experimental results with the metal-carbon phase diagrams, we prove that SWNTs can grow from solid and liquid phase-catalysts, depending on the temperature.
Rao, R; Pierce, N; Liptak, D; Hooper, D; Sargent, G; Semiatin, SL; Curtarolo, S; Harutyunyan, AR; Maruyama, B
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