Progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration with proliferation and inner retinal migration of hyperreflective foci.
PURPOSE: Drusen and migrating retinal pigment epithelium have been associated with hyperreflective foci (HF) detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This study sought to quantify the change in intraretinal HF distribution and its correlation with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) disease progression. DESIGN: Prospective observational study from the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Ancillary SD-OCT Study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (n=299) with 1 enrolled eye with intermediate AMD and baseline SD-OCT, followed by SD-OCT imaging at 1-year and 2-year visits. METHODS: The number and location of HF were scored in SD-OCT scans of all 299 eyes. The change in transverse (horizontal) and axial (vertical) distribution of HF in the macula were evaluated with pairwise signed-rank tests. Two-year inner retinal HF migration was determined by the change in HF-weighted axial distribution (AxD) score calculated for each eye. The correlation of HF with SD-OCT features of AMD progression was evaluated with logistic regression analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The mean change in number of HF, transverse and axial distribution of HF in the macula, and AxD per eye. RESULTS: In 299 study eyes, the 2-year increase in the number of HF (P<0.001) and the AxD (P<0.001) per eye represented longitudinal proliferation and shift to inner retinal layers, respectively. Eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) at 2 years were correlated with the presence of baseline HF (P<0.001; odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.43-9.80), greater number of baseline HF (P<0.001; OR, 1.61 per HF; 95% CI, 1.32-2.00), and greater baseline AxD (P<0.001; OR, 1.58 per AxD point; 95% CI, 1.29-1.95). CONCLUSIONS: Proliferation and inner retinal migration of SD-OCT HF occurred during follow-up in eyes with intermediate AMD. These characteristics were associated with greater incidence of GA at year 2; therefore, SD-OCT HF proliferation and migration may serve as biomarkers for AMD progression. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
Christenbury, JG; Folgar, FA; O'Connell, RV; Chiu, SJ; Farsiu, S; Toth, CA; Age-related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group,
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