Prognostic significance of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (from the EVEREST Trial).
Lower cholesterol levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and have been shown to predict in-hospital mortality. The relation between lipid profile and postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for worsening HF is less clear. In this post hoc analysis of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study With Tolvaptan (EVEREST), 3,957 patients hospitalized for worsening HF with ejection fractions ≤40% were examined. Baseline total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured <48 hours after admission and evaluated as continuous variables. The primary end points of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF were compared using Cox regression models. Patient characteristics at randomization were also compared among quartiles of total cholesterol. Patients with lower total cholesterol tended to have lower blood pressure, ejection fractions, serum sodium, and albumin, and were more likely to have worse HF functional class, to have higher natriuretic peptide levels, and to have histories of diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, and coronary revascularization (all p values <0.001). After adjustment for baseline clinical risk factors, total cholesterol was predictive of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 0.85, p <0.001) and cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.82, p <0.001) at median follow-up of 9.9 months. Lower baseline triglyceride level was also associated with worse outcomes. In conclusion, lower baseline total cholesterol is correlated with a high-risk patient profile and is a marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized for worsening HF with reduced ejection fraction. Baseline total cholesterol and triglyceride levels are predictive of mortality and HF rehospitalization beyond traditional risk factors.
Greene, SJ; Vaduganathan, M; Lupi, L; Ambrosy, AP; Mentz, RJ; Konstam, MA; Nodari, S; Subacius, HP; Fonarow, GC; Bonow, RO; Gheorghiade, M; EVEREST Trial Investigators,
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