The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) binds tissue-type plasminogen activator and promotes activation of plasminogen on the cell surface.
The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a major pore-forming protein in the outer membrane of mitochondria, is also found in the plasma membrane of a large number of cells where in addition to its role in regulating cellular ATP release and volume control it is important for maintaining redox homeostasis. Cell surface VDAC is a receptor for plasminogen kringle 5, which promotes partial closure of the channel. In this study, we demonstrate that VDAC binds tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Binding of t-PA to VDAC induced a decrease in K(m) and an increase in the V(max) for activation of its substrate, plasminogen (Pg). This resulted in accelerated Pg activation when VDAC, t-PA, and Pg were bound together. VDAC is also a substrate for plasmin; hence, it mimics fibrin activity. Binding of t-PA to VDAC occurs between a t-PA fibronectin type I finger domain located between amino acids Ile(5) and Asn(37) and a VDAC region including amino acids (20)GYGFG(24). These VDAC residues correspond to a GXXXG repeat motif commonly found in amyloid β peptides that is necessary for aggregation when these peptides form fibrillar deposits on the cell surface. Furthermore, we also show that Pg kringle 5 is a substrate for the NADH-dependent reductase activity of VDAC. This ternary complex is an efficient proteolytic complex that may facilitate removal of amyloid β peptide deposits from the normal brain and cell debris from injured brain tissue.
Gonzalez-Gronow, M; Ray, R; Wang, F; Pizzo, SV
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