Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

Journal Article

Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P < 0.001) and was relatively conserved among plant types (for a given plant size), while increasing across climates following the atmospheric evaporative demand. The fact that E(max) was roughly conserved across plant types and scales with the product of xylem saturated conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation was used here to explain the safety-efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Manzoni, S; Vico, G; Katul, G; Palmroth, S; Jackson, RB; Porporato, A

Published Date

  • April 2013

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 198 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 169 - 178

PubMed ID

  • 23356378

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1469-8137

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/nph.12126

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • England