CD4+-T-cell and CD20+-B-cell changes predict rapid disease progression after simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques.
Simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6PD (SHIV89.6PD) was pathogenic after intrarectal inoculation of rhesus macaques. Infection was achieved with a minimum of 2,500 tissue culture infectious doses of cell-free virus stock, and there was no evidence for transient viremia in animals receiving subinfectious doses by the intrarectal route. Some animals experienced rapid progression of disease characterized by loss of greater than 90% of circulating CD4+ T cells, sustained decreases in CD20+ B cells, failure to elicit virus-binding antibodies in plasma, and high levels of antigenemia. Slower-progressing animals had moderate but varying losses of CD4+ T cells; showed increases in circulating CD20+ B cells; mounted vigorous responses to antibodies in plasma, including neutralizing antibodies; and had low or undetectable levels of antigenemia. Rapid progression led to death within 30 weeks after intrarectal inoculation. Plasma antigenemia at 2 weeks after inoculation (P < or = 0.002), B- and T-cell losses (P < or = 0.013), and failure to seroconvert (P < or = 0.005) were correlated statistically with rapid progression. Correlations were evident by 2 to 4 weeks after intrarectal SHIV inoculation, indicating that early events in the host-pathogen interaction determined the clinical outcome.
Steger, KK; Dykhuizen, M; Mitchen, JL; Hinds, PW; Preuninger, BL; Wallace, M; Thomson, J; Montefiori, DC; Lu, Y; Pauza, CD
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