Serum antibodies to HIV-1 in recombinant vaccinia virus recipients boosted with purified recombinant gp160. NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network.
Serum antibody responses were studied in detail in four vaccinia-naive volunteers in a phase I trial evaluating primary vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the HIV-1 gp160 envelope glycoprotein (HIVAC-1e, Oncogen/Bristol-Myers Squibb), followed by booster immunization with baculovirus-derived rgp160 (VaxSyn, MicroGeneSys). Prior to boosting, low-titer Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancing (ADE) activity was detected in two of four volunteers but no IgM, IgG, IgA, neutralizing activity, or complement-mediated ADE activity was detected. Two weeks after boosting, all four volunteers developed HIV-1-specific IgG with titers of 1:160 to 1:640 by immunofluorescence assay. IgG1 was present in sera from each individual, while IgG2 and IgG3 were present in sera from two individuals, and IgG4 was present in serum from one individual. IgM and IgA were undetectable in all sera. Only one volunteer had IgG to the heterologous HIV-1 isolates, RF, MN, and SF2, after boosting. Serum from this volunteer neutralized the vaccine strain, LAV/IIIB, but not the heterologous strains, RF, MN, and SF2. Antibodies from the remaining volunteers had no neutralizing activity. The neutralizing serum had a positive reaction in a peptide-based ELISA utilizing a peptide corresponding to the principal neutralizing domain of the third hypervariable region (i.e., V3 loop) of the envelope glycoprotein. Neutralizing activity was partially removed by adsorption to this peptide, suggesting that it contained a type-specific neutralizing vaccine epitope. A low titer (1:40 to 1:80) of complement-mediated ADE activity to HIV-1 IIIB was present in sera from three vaccinees after boosting. FcR-ADE activity for HIV-1 SF2 and SF-128A were present in sera from two of these three vaccinees. None of the volunteers developed antisyncytial antibodies. These results indicate that inoculation with recombinant vaccinia followed by rgp160 boosting is the most effective strategy to date for inducing serum antibodies to the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, but further study is needed to optimize the functionality and cross-reactivity of these responses.
Montefiori, DC; Graham, BS; Kliks, S; Wright, PF
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