Urological complications and vesicoureteral reflux following pediatric kidney transplantation.
PURPOSE: Ureteral complications of renal transplantation can dramatically impact renal outcomes. We studied whether complications are associated with preexisting genitourinary pathology or transplant using a deceased donor allograft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing renal transplantation at our institution between 2000 and 2010. We abstracted patient demographic details, donor type (living vs deceased), end-stage renal disease etiology, reimplant technique, stent use, preoperative and postoperative imaging, history of lower genitourinary pathology and postoperative complication management. RESULTS: A total of 211 kidneys were transplanted into 206 patients (mean age 13.7 years, mean followup 4.6 years). Most patients (89%) underwent extravesical ureteroneocystostomy without stenting (97%), with roughly half (47%) of transplants being from living donors. Preexisting urological pathology was present in 34% of cases. Postoperative obstruction or extravasation occurred in 16 cases (7.6%), of which 15 were acute. Complications were not associated with donor type, preexisting urological pathology other than posterior urethral valves, surgical technique, etiology of end-stage renal disease or patient age. However, posterior urethral valves or other preexisting genitourinary pathology was not associated with an increased likelihood of genitourinary complications. Posterior urethral valves were associated with development of postoperative vesicoureteral reflux (OR 6.7, p = 0.004) but were not associated with stent placement, surgical technique, donor type or etiology of end-stage renal disease. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with posterior urethral valves undergoing renal transplantation are at increased risk for postoperative vesicoureteral reflux but not for other acute surgical complications. There is no association between donor type, etiology of end-stage renal disease, surgical technique or patient age and increased complications.
Routh, JC; Yu, RN; Kozinn, SI; Nguyen, HT; Borer, JG
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