A systematic review of sleep in pediatric pain populations.
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for a pain-sleep relationship in children with persistent pain by reviewing studies using single and mixed pediatric persistent pain samples. METHODS: Electronic searches of Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PsycINFO were conducted to identify all relevant empirical studies. Studies were included in the review if the majority of participants were between 0 and 17 years and from one of the following pediatric pain populations: juvenile idiopathic arthritis, sickle cell disease, migraine/headache, functional abdominal pain, juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome, chronic musculoskeletal pain, or mixed populations including the aforementioned conditions. RESULTS: Research from single and mixed sample studies support the hypothesis that children and adolescents with persistent pain suffer from sleep impairment. Literature addressing factors that may influence or mediate the pain-sleep relationship and the functional outcomes of the pain-sleep relationship was reviewed, and a model of the interrelationships with pain and sleep was developed. CONCLUSION: Findings from this review highlight the need to assess and treat sleep problems in children presenting with persistent pain. Health care providers should consider conducting routine sleep screenings, including a comprehensive description of sleep patterns and behaviors obtained through clinical interview, sleep diaries, and/or the use of standardized measures of sleep. Future research focusing on investigating the mechanisms associating sleep and pediatric persistent pain and on functional outcomes of poor sleep in pediatric pain populations is needed.
Valrie, CR; Bromberg, MH; Palermo, T; Schanberg, LE
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