Role of cytokines in the mechanism of action of amlodipine: the PRAISE Heart Failure Trial. Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the beneficial effects of amlodipine in heart failure may be mediated by a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. We postulated that TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels may also have predictive value in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism for progression of CHF may involve cytokine overexpression. The effect of amlodipine on cytokine levels in patients with CHF is unknown. METHODS: In the Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation (PRAISE) trial, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure plasma levels of TNF-alpha in 92 patients and IL-6 in 62 patients in New York Heart Association functional classes III and IV randomized to receive amlodipine (10 mg/day) or placebo. Blood samples were obtained for cytokine measurement at baseline and at 8 and 26 weeks after enrollment. RESULTS: The baseline amlodipine and placebo groups did not differ in demographics and cytokine levels. Mean (+/- SD) plasma levels of TNF-alpha were 5.69 +/- 0.32 pg/ml, and those of IL-6 were 9.23 +/- 1.26 pg/ml at baseline. These levels were elevated 6 and 10 times, respectively, compared with those of normal subjects (p < 0.001). Levels of TNF-alpha did not change significantly over the 26-week period (p = 0.69). However, IL-6 levels were significantly lower at 26 weeks in patients treated with amlodipine versus placebo (p = 0.007 by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test). An adverse event-CHF or death-occurred more commonly in patients with higher IL-6 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Amlodipine lowers plasma IL-6 levels in patients with CHF. The beneficial effect of amlodipine in CHF may be due to a reduction of cytokines such as IL-6.
Mohler, ER; Sorensen, LC; Ghali, JK; Schocken, DD; Willis, PW; Bowers, JA; Cropp, AB; Pressler, ML
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