Cyclic GMP is a second messenger by which nitric oxide inhibits diaphragm contraction.
We have shown that endogenous nitrogen oxides (NOx) modulate excitation-contraction coupling in diaphragm. Because cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a second messenger for nitric oxide (NO) inhibition of smooth muscle contraction, we rested the hypothesis that NO acts via cGMP in diaphragm. Fiber bundles from rat diaphragm were studied in vitro. Immunohistochemical analysis using a cGMP-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of cGMP in the subsarcolemmal region, near nitric oxide synthase (NOS). cGMP measured by ELISA in control muscle (0.27 pmol/mg +/- 0.01 SE) was significantly increased by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine 1 mM (0.55+/-0.05; N = 6; P < 0.001). Contractile studies showed that the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) 10 mM increased submaximal (40 Hz) tetanic force (P < 0.0001). L-NNA effects were exaggerated by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY83583 5-10 microM; force at 40 Hz was increased (P < 0.001). L-NNA effects were partially reversed by 8-bromo-cGMP 1 mM (8-Br-GMP; a cell-permeable cGMP analogue; P < 0.0001) or dipyridamole 10 microM (DPM; a phosphodiesterase inhibitor; P < 0.0001). 8-Br-GMP and DPM produced more-complete L-NNA reversal in combination (P < 0.0001). We conclude that cGMP functions as a second messenger by which NO inhibits diaphragm contraction.
Abraham, RZ; Kobzik, L; Moody, MR; Reid, MB; Stamler, JS
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)