Effect of smoking status on productivity loss.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe health-related productivity losses in nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers using a large, cross-sectional database of U.S. employees. METHODS: Volunteers completed the Wellness Inventory, an instrument measuring productivity losses related to 11 health conditions affecting employee health. Results are aggregated, dollarized, and reported by smoking group. RESULTS: Current smokers missed more days of work and experienced more unproductive time at work compared with former smokers and nonsmokers. The average annual cost for lost productivity for nonsmokers was 2623 dollars/year compared with 3246 dollars/year for former smokers and 4430 dollars/year for current smokers. More than half the costs were due to unproductive time at work. CONCLUSION: Current smokers incurred the highest productivity losses, which translated into higher costs to employers for current smokers. Costs were lower for former smokers and nonsmokers.
Bunn, WB; Stave, GM; Downs, KE; Alvir, JMJ; Dirani, R
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)