The new cardiotonic agent sulmazole is an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist and functionally blocks the inhibitory regulator, Gi.
Although many of the new cardiotonic agents are known to increase cAMP and to inhibit with variable potency a low Km cAMP phosphodiesterase, there is still debate as to the mechanism(s) by which these agents act. In a rat adipocyte membrane model we demonstrate that only approximately 50% of the effect of the new cardiotonic agent sulmazole on cAMP accumulation can be attributed to phosphodiesterase inhibition and that the remaining production of cAMP involves stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Two distinct pathways for stimulation of adenylate cyclase are herein reported. Sulmazole, UD-CG 212 CL, enoximone, piroximone, amrinone, and milrinone are all shown to be competitive antagonists of inhibitory A1 adenosine receptors, with EC50 values of 11-909 microM. Elimination of the effects of endogenous adenosine with adenosine deaminase reveals a third distinct mechanism for activation of adenylate cyclase. This mechanism appears to involve Gi, the inhibitory guanine nucleotide-regulatory protein, in that sulmazole attenuates the capacity of GTP to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity, and covalent modification of Gi by pertussis toxin treatment abolishes the capacity of sulmazole to mediate stimulation. Thus, functional blockade of Gi activity is the likely mode of action. Restoration of sulmazole's stimulatory effect on adenylate cyclase activity in pertussis toxin-treated membranes can be accomplished by reconstituting purified preparations of either Gi or mixtures of Gi/Go into treated adipocyte membranes. Of note, this stimulatory effect is completely reversed by inhibitory receptor agonists. Thus, the new cardiotonic agent sulmazole mediates increases in cAMP accumulation by mechanisms other than phosphodiesterase inhibition, including A1 adenosine receptor antagonism and inhibition of Gi function.
Parsons, WJ; Ramkumar, V; Stiles, GL
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