# On adiabatic turn-on and the asymptotic limit in linear response theory for open systems

Journal Article

Linear response theory for open (infinite) systems leads to an expression for the current response which contains surface terms in addition to the usual bulk Kubo term. We show that this surface term vanishes identically if the correct order of limits is maintained in the derivation: the system size, L, must be taken to infinity before the adiabatic turn-on rate $\delta$ of the perturbation is taken to zero. In contrast to recent claims this shows that linear response theory for open systems is gauge-invariant without modification of the continuity equation. We show that a simpler derivation of the Landauer-B\"uttiker equations may be obtained consistently from the bulk Kubo term, noting that surface terms arising here are non-vanishing because they involve the opposite order of limits, $\delta \to 0$, then $L \to \infty$.

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### Duke Authors

### Cited Authors

- Noeckel, JU; Stone, AD; Baranger, HU