Sex and gender as critical variables in feminist psychopharmacology research and pharmacotherapy


Journal Article

There is increasing recognition that sex (as a demographic or descriptive variable) is a critical factor in clinical pharmacology research. In addition, we argue that there is a need for increased study of gender-related effects in pharmacological research. Gender is a complex, socially constructed variable that will require greater attention to contextualized research methods. Sex and possible gender-related differences are summarized for three main groups of psychotropic drugs: antipsychotics, antianxiety agents, and antidepressants. Clinically meaningful effects of sex and sex-related hormones have been demonstrated for both drug metabolism (and more broadly, for pharmacokinetics) and for clinical outcomes, including benefits and side-effects. A contextualized, mediated-effects model is proposed as a guide to future research. Implications for advancing women’s mental health are explored. © 1995 by The Haworth Press, Inc.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Hamilton, JA; Jensvold, MF

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 16 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 9 - 30

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1541-0315

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0270-3149

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1300/J015v16n01_02

Citation Source

  • Scopus