More than menorrhagia: a review of the obstetric and gynaecological manifestations of bleeding disorders.
In women, menorrhagia may be the most common manifestation of a bleeding disorder, but it is not the only reproductive tract abnormality that women with bleeding disorders experience. Women with bleeding disorders appear to be at an increased risk of developing haemorrhagic ovarian cysts and possibly endometriosis. As they grow older, they may be more likely to manifest conditions, which present with bleeding such as fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia and polyps. Women with bleeding disorders are more likely to undergo a hysterectomy and are more likely to have the operation at a younger age. During pregnancy, they may be at greater risk of miscarriage and bleeding complications. At the time of childbirth, women with bleeding disorders appear to be more likely to experience postpartum haemorrhage, particularly delayed or secondary postpartum haemorrhage. Vaginal or vulvar haematomas, extremely rare in women without bleeding disorders, are not uncommon. While women with bleeding disorders are at risk for the same obstetrical and gynaecological problems that affect all women, they appear to be disproportionately affected by conditions that manifest with bleeding.
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