A brain-computer interface based attention training program for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
UNLABELLED: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms can be difficult to treat. We previously reported that a 20-session brain-computer interface (BCI) attention training programme improved ADHD symptoms. Here, we investigated a new more intensive BCI-based attention training game system on 20 unmedicated ADHD children (16 males, 4 females) with significant inattentive symptoms (combined and inattentive ADHD subtypes). This new system monitored attention through a head band with dry EEG sensors, which was used to drive a feed forward game. The system was calibrated for each user by measuring the EEG parameters during a Stroop task. Treatment consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 sessions followed by 3 once-monthly booster training sessions. Following intervention, both parent-rated inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale showed significant improvement. At week 8, the mean improvement was -4.6 (5.9) and -4.7 (5.6) respectively for inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (both p<0.01). Cohen's d effect size for inattentive symptoms was large at 0.78 at week 8 and 0.84 at week 24 (post-boosters). Further analysis showed that the change in the EEG based BCI ADHD severity measure correlated with the change ADHD Rating Scale scores. The BCI-based attention training game system is a potential new treatment for ADHD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01344044.
Lim, CG; Lee, TS; Guan, C; Fung, DSS; Zhao, Y; Teng, SSW; Zhang, H; Krishnan, KRR
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