The methodology of visual field testing with frequency doubling technology in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006.
PURPOSE: To describe the frequency doubling technology (FDT) methodology to measure visual field loss in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and to evaluate data reliability. METHODS: Participants aged 40 years and older were eligible (n = 2,529) for 2 visual field tests per eye performed with the Humphrey Matrix N-30-5 screening test. Visual field loss was determined using a 2-2-1 algorithm requiring 2 complete tests per eye, with at least 2 abnormal field results in each test, and 1 common abnormal field. RESULTS: Response rate was 86.2%. Time constraints were the main reason for no exam (55.6%). Median times were: single test, 37 seconds; entire exam, 9.1 minutes. When defining reliability based on ≤ 1/3 blind spots, ≤ 1/3 false positive tests, and technician noted proper fixation, 80.1% of examined adults had 2 reliable tests for both eyes; an additional 13.4% had 2 reliable tests for 1 eye. Increasing age, decreasing visual acuity, and the presence of self-reported glaucoma resulted in decreased examination rates, increased test times, and decreased data reliability. Sensitivity and specificity to detect persons with glaucoma was 54.8% and 91.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: FDT is a feasible, fast, and reliable method for visual field loss screening in a population-based U.S. study, with an 86.2% response rate, median exam time ~9 minutes, and nearly 95% of examined participants having complete, reliable results in 1 or both eyes.
Terry, AL; Paulose-Ram, R; Tilert, TJ; Johnson, CA; Zhang, X; Lee, PP; Saaddine, JB
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