The hepatic extraction of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and insulin.
The hepatic extractions of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and insulin were determined using in vitro and in vivo methods to assess the role of the liver in GIP metabolism and the possible effect of GIP on the hepatic extraction of insulin. During in vitro studies using the isolated perfused rat liver, infusion of GIP (2000 pg/ml) alone and in combination with porcine insulin (200 microU/ml) resulted in negligible hepatic extraction of immunoreactive GIP (IR-GIP) in both fed and fasted animals during either physiologically euglycemic or hyperglycemic perfusions. Hepatic extraction of insulin, however, ranged from 26-36% in fasted animals and from 7-25% in fed animals. Hepatic extraction of insulin and net hepatic glucose appearance were minimally affected by GIP. In vivo studies in awake dogs were then performed, in which simultaneous portal and peripheral venous levels of IR-GIP, immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and glucose were assessed after intraduodenal glucose administration. The portal to peripheral (PORT/PERI) venous ratio of endogenous IRI and IR-GIP reflected the findings of the in vitro studies; the PORT/PERI ratio of IRI levels rose from a basal value of 1.9 +/- 0.3 to a peak of 3.7 +/- 0.9, while the PORT/PERI ratio of IR-GIP levels rose from a basal value of 1.0 +/- 0.1 to a peak of 1.4 +/- 0.2, then rapidly returned to 1.0. The in vivo data are consistent with a continuous hepatic extraction of 40-50% of the insulin entering the liver and a negligible hepatic extraction of IR-GIP. We conclude that hepatic extraction of GIP in vitro or in vivo is minimal. In addition, while the fed state of the animal before infusion can result in changes in the in vitro hepatic extraction of insulin, GIP does not mediate these changes.
Hanks, JB; Andersen, DK; Wise, JE; Putnam, WS; Meyers, WC; Jones, RS
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