Heterologous desensitization of the inhibitory A1 adenosine receptor-adenylate cyclase system in rat adipocytes. Regulation of both Ns and Ni.
Adenosine, acting via A1 adenosine receptors, can inhibit adenylate cyclase activity in adipocytes. To assess the effects of chronic adenosine agonist exposure on the A1 adenosine receptor system of adipocytes, rats were infused with (-)-phenylisopropyladenosine or vehicle for 6 days and membranes were prepared. Basal as well as isoproterenol-, sodium fluoride-, and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities were significantly increased (approximately 2-fold) in membranes from treated animals. (-)-Phenylisopropyladenosine-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was significantly (p = 0.0001) attenuated in membranes from treated rats (20.1 +/- 2.1% inhibition) versus controls (31.6 +/- 2.3% inhibition). Prostaglandin E1-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was also attenuated: 11.7 +/- 3.6 versus 23.2 +/- 4.6% (p = 0.001). Using the A1 adenosine receptor agonist radioligand (-)-N6-(3-[125I]iodo-4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl)adenosine, 32% fewer high affinity binding sites were detected in membranes from treated animals (p less than 0.04). Photoaffinity labeling with N6-2-(3-[125I]iodo-4-azidophenyl)ethyladenosine revealed no gross difference in receptor structure. The number of beta-adrenergic receptors as well as the percentage of receptors in the high affinity state as assessed by (-)-3-[125I]iodocyanopindolol binding were the same in both groups. In membranes from treated rats, the amount of [alpha-32P]NAD incorporated by pertussis toxin into the alpha subunit of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (Ni) was decreased by 37 +/- 11%. Concurrently, the quantity of label incorporated by cholera toxin into the alpha subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (Ns) was increased by 44 +/- 14% in treated membranes. Finally, the capacity of Ns solubilized from treated membranes to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity when reconstituted into cyc- S49 lymphoma cell membranes was enhanced by approximately 50% compared to control. Thus, heterologous desensitization, manifested by a diminished capacity to inhibit adenylate cyclase and an enhanced responsiveness to stimulatory effectors, can be induced in the A1 adenosine receptor-adenylate cyclase system of adipocytes. A decrease in Ni alpha subunit concomitant with an increase in Ns alpha subunit quantity and activity may represent the biochemical mechanism of desensitization in this system.
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