The clinical characteristics and antiretroviral dosing patterns of HIV-infected patients receiving dialysis.
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related renal disease is the third leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among African Americans aged 24 to 60 years. This study describes the clinical characteristics and antiretroviral dosing patterns of HIV-infected patients receiving dialysis to define the clinical needs of this growing population. METHODS: Demographic and clinical information was collected on all HIV-infected patients incident to dialysis after January 1, 1998 until January 1, 2001 at five medical centers. The cohort was described overall and by subgroups based on hepatitis status, CD4 lymphocyte count, and use of antiretroviral therapy. Continuous and categoric variables were compared using either the Wilcoxon rank sum or Student t test and Fisher's exact or chi-square tests, as appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 89 patients were included, 55 of whom were alive at the time of data collection. The mean age was 44.6 years (range, 22.7 to 66.9 years), 74.2% were male, and 83.2% patients were African Americans. While only 45.9% of patients undergoing renal biopsy were diagnosed with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), the majority of patients who had not undergone biopsy carried the clinical diagnosis of HIVAN (69.8%, P = 0.03). Of the cohort, 19.7% tested hepatitis B surface antigen positive, and 67.1% had reactive antibody tests for hepatitis C. Patients with hepatitis C were more likely to have experienced intravenous drug use as a risk behavior for HIV acquisition (OR 8.2; 95% CI 2.39, 27.9; P = 0.001] and to be older (OR 1.1 per year of age; 95% CI 1.02, 1.2; P = 0.01). A total of 60.7% of patients were receiving antiretroviral medication at last follow-up. Among patients alive and receiving antiretroviral medications at the time of data collection, absolute CD4+ count rose (268 vs. 339 cells/mL, P = 0.03), while among patients alive, but not receiving antiretroviral medications, absolute CD4+ count did not change (389 vs. 392 cells/mL, P = 0.11) during similar periods of follow-up. No difference was seen between initial and current HIV RNA levels for either group. Among patients receiving antiretroviral medications, there were significant variations in dosing regimens. The greatest variation was seen in the prescribing patterns of lamivudine with a 12-fold difference among patients. CONCLUSION: The projected growth of the HIV-infected ESRD population requires a better understanding of the clinical needs of this population. The high prevalence of coinfection with hepatitis C as well as the wide variations in dosing patterns for antiretroviral medications are areas that require further investigation to minimize morbidity and mortality among this group.
Szczech, LA; Kalayjian, R; Rodriguez, R; Gupta, S; Coladonato, J; Winston, J; Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group Renal Complications Committee,
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