A phase I study of gemcitabine + dasatinib (gd) or gemcitabine + dasatinib + cetuximab (GDC) in refractory solid tumors.
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase two dose (RPTD), and toxicities of gemcitabine + dasatinib (GD) and gemcitabine + dasatinib + cetuximab (GDC) in advanced solid tumor patients. METHODS: This study was a standard phase I 3 + 3 dose escalation study evaluating two combination regimens, GD and GDC. Patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in cohorts of 3-6 to either GD or GDC. Gemcitabine was dosed at 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 of 4 weeks, dasatinib was dosed in mg PO BID, and cetuximab was dosed at 250 mg/m2 weekly after a loading dose of cetuximab of 400 mg/m2. There were two dose levels for dasatinib: (1) gemcitabine + dasatinib 50 mg ± cetuximab, and (2) gemcitabine + dasatinib 70 mg ± cetuximab. Cycle length was 28 days. Standard cycle 1 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definitions were used. Eligible patients had advanced solid tumors, adequate organ and marrow function, and no co-morbidities that would increase the risk of toxicity. Serum, plasma, and skin biopsy biomarkers were obtained pre- and on-treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, including 21 with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Three patients received prior gemcitabine. Twenty-one patients were evaluable for toxicity and 16 for response. Four DLTs were observed: Grade (Gr) 3 neutropenia (GDC1, n = 1), Gr 3 ALT (GD2, n = 2), and Gr 5 pneumonitis (GDC2, n = 1). Possible treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in later cycles included: Gr 3-4 neutropenia (n = 7), Gr 4 colitis (n = 1), Gr 3 bilirubin (n = 2), Gr 3 anemia (n = 2), Gr 3 thrombocytopenia (n = 2), Gr 3 edema/fluid retention (n = 1), and Gr 3 vomiting (n = 3). Six of 16 patients (3 of whom were gemcitabine-refractory) had stable disease (SD) as best response, median duration = 5 months (range 1-7). One gemcitabine-refractory patient had a partial response (PR). Median PFS was 2.9 months (95% CI 2.1, 5.8). Median OS was 5.8 months (95% CI 4.1, 11.8). Dermal wound biopsies demonstrated that dasatinib resulted in a decrease of total and phospho-Src levels, and cetuximab resulted in a decrease of EGFR and ERBB2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: The MTD/RPTD of GD is gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 of 4 weeks and dasatinib 50 mg PO BID. The clinical activity of GD seen in this study was modest, and does not support its further investigation in pancreatic cancer.
Mettu, NB; Niedzwiecki, D; Rushing, C; Nixon, AB; Jia, J; Haley, S; Honeycutt, W; Hurwitz, H; Bendell, JC; Uronis, H
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