Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in prevention and treatment of renal cell carcinoma: efficacy, safety, and activity of Ad-GM·CAIX in immunocompetent mouse models.
The dendritic cell vaccine DC-Ad-GM·CAIX is an active, specific immunotherapy with the potential of providing a safe and effective therapy against renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Using immunocompetent Balb/c mouse models we tested the efficacy and mechanism of the vaccine to prevent and treat the growth of a syngeneic RCC (RENCA) engineered to overexpress the human TAA carbonic anhydrase IX (NPR-IX). In a prevention model, NPR-IX tumor development was specifically and significantly delayed by 13 days in DC-Ad-GM·CAIX-treated mice (P < 0.001), tumor volumes were 79% smaller (day 24, P < 0.007), and body weight was maintained at study termination compared with the controls. Six of these mice remained tumor-free for > 1 year. In a treatment model, NPR-IX tumors remained smaller in DC-Ad-GM·CAIX-treated mice for 8 days (P < 0.002), achieving a 60% growth inhibition at termination. No vaccine-related organ toxicity was observed in either model. The critical mechanistic parameter separating responsive from nonresponsive tumors was hCAIX protein expression, demonstrated by aggressive growth of tumors that did not express hCAIX protein and in sham-treated mice (DC-Ad-Null). No murine serum anti-hCAIX antibodies were detected. Moreover, altered mechanisms of immunoediting as a means for immune evasion were suggested by differential gene expression (Ccl1, Hmgb1, Fgl2, Cd209a, and Klra2) and therapy evasion miRNAs (miR-1186, miR-98, miR-5097, miR-1942, and miR-708) in tumors that evaded DC-Ad-GM·CAIX immunotherapy. This is the first study in immunocompetent mice that provides a proof of concept for the specificity, efficacy, safety, and activity of the DC-Ad-GM·CAIX immunotherapy, forming the basis for a first-in-human phase I trial in RCC patients.
Birkhäuser, FD; Koya, RC; Neufeld, C; Rampersaud, EN; Lu, X; Micewicz, ED; Chodon, T; Atefi, M; Kroeger, N; Chandramouli, GVR; Li, G; Said, JW; McBride, WH; Kabbinavar, FF; Ribas, A; Pantuck, AJ; Belldegrun, AS; Riss, J
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