Novel chemotherapies in development for management of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Four new therapies have been recently approved for the treatment of men with castration-resistant prostate cancer; still, more treatment options are needed. This review summarizes the data supporting a role for novel chemotherapies including epothilones and immunomodulators (IMiDs), as well as other novel agents within the new landscape of approved therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Epothilones are a class of chemotherapy that target microtubule disassembly, similar to taxanes. Results from phase II studies demonstrating a positive impact on serum prostate-specific antigen for patupilone and sagopilone, current epothilones in development, along with those of ixabepilone, are comparable with historical response rates to docetaxel, the current first-line chemotherapy for castration-resistant disease. IMiDs, including lenalidamide and thalidomide, are also in active development in castration-resistant prostate cancer. A recent phase III study evaluating the combination of lenalidomide and docetaxel revealed decreased overall survival relative to docetaxel alone; however, additional trials are currently recruiting to investigate lenalidomide in various other combination regimens. SUMMARY: Epothilones could be efficacious as an additional therapy in patients who respond to docetaxel chemotherapy. A role for IMiDs, perhaps in combination with chemotherapy or androgen pathway inhibitors, remains to be elucidated.
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