The effect of gender and age on kidney cancer survival: younger age is an independent prognostic factor in women with renal cell carcinoma.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Multicenter Study)

OBJECTIVE: Gender-specific differences in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its outcome have previously been reported. We used age as a surrogate to test whether this might be hormone-related in a large international RCC cohort. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study included patients treated by nephrectomy at 10 international academic centers. Clinicopathologic features were assessed using chi-square and the Student t-tests. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional hazards models addressed the effect of gender and age on disease-specific survival. RESULTS: Of the 5,654 patients, 3,777 (67%) were men and 1,877 (33%) were women. Generally, women presented at lower T stages (P<0.001), had fewer metastases (P<0.001), and had lower-grade tumors (P<0.001). Women more frequently had clear-cell (87% vs. 82%) and less frequently had papillary RCC (7% vs. 12%) than men (P<0.001). Women had a 19% reduced risk of death from RCC than men (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.90, P<0.001). The survival advantage for women was present to the greatest degree in the age group<42 years (P = 0.0136) and in women aged 42 to 58 years (P<0.001), but was not apparent in patients aged 59 years and older (P = 0.248). Age was an independent predictor of disease-specific survival in women (hazard ratio 1.011, 95% confidence interval 1.004-1.019, P = 0.004), but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, women present with less advanced tumors, leading to a 19% reduced risk of RCC-specific death compared with men. This survival difference is present only in patients aged<59 years. Because this gender-based survival difference is not related to pathologic features, the role of hormonal effects on the development and progression of RCC needs to be investigated.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Rampersaud, EN; Klatte, T; Bass, G; Patard, J-J; Bensaleh, K; Böhm, M; Allhoff, EP; Cindolo, L; De La Taille, A; Mejean, A; Soulie, M; Bellec, L; Christophe Bernhard, J; Pfister, C; Colombel, M; Belldegrun, AS; Pantuck, AJ; George, D

Published Date

  • January 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 32 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 30.e9 - 30.13

PubMed ID

  • 23422777

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-2496

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.urolonc.2012.10.012


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States