Neuropsychiatric symptoms as risk factors for progression from CIND to dementia: the Cache County Study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS) severity with risk of transition to all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD). DESIGN: Survival analysis of time to dementia, AD, or VaD onset. SETTING: Population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: 230 participants diagnosed with cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) from the Cache County Study of Memory Health and Aging were followed for a mean of 3.3 years. MEASUREMENTS: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) was used to quantify the presence, frequency, and severity of NPS. Chi-squared statistics, t-tests, and Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to assess associations. RESULTS: The conversion rate from CIND to all-cause dementia was 12% per year, with risk factors including an APOE ε4 allele, lower Mini-Mental State Examination, lower 3MS, and higher CDR sum-of-boxes. The presence of at least one NPS was a risk factor for all-cause dementia, as was the presence of NPS with mild severity. Nighttime behaviors were a risk factor for all-cause dementia and of AD, whereas hallucinations were a risk factor for VaD. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that NPS are risk factors for conversion from CIND to dementia. Of special interest is that even NPS of mild severity are a risk for all-cause dementia or AD.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Peters, ME; Rosenberg, PB; Steinberg, M; Norton, MC; Welsh-Bohmer, KA; Hayden, KM; Breitner, J; Tschanz, JT; Lyketsos, CG; Cache County Investigators,

Published Date

  • November 2013

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 21 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 1116 - 1124

PubMed ID

  • 23567370

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3525756

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1545-7214

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.049


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England