Pharmacodynamics of liposomal amphotericin B and flucytosine for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis: safe and effective regimens for immunocompromised patients.
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a lethal infection with relatively few therapeutic options. The optimal dosage of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) alone or in combination with flucytosine is not known. METHODS: A murine model of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis was used. The fungal density in the brain was determined using quantitative cultures. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships were determined for LAmB and flucytosine administered alone. The effect of the combination was described using the Greco model and a mathematical model. The results were bridged to humans. RESULTS: Inoculation resulted in hematogenous dissemination and logarithmic growth within the central nervous system. There was histological evidence of multifocal infection throughout the brain. Both LAmB and flucytosine produced a dose-dependent reduction in fungal burden. The effect of the combination of agents in the brain was additive. Bridging studies suggested that a human dosage of LAmB 3 mg/kg/d resulted in a submaximal antifungal effect. Regimens of LAmB 6 mg/kg/d alone, LAmB 3 mg/kg/d plus flucytosine 50 mg/kg/d, and LAmB 3 mg/kg/d plus flucytosine 100 mg/kg/d all resulted in near-maximal antifungal activity. CONCLUSIONS: Potential regimens for further study in clinical trials include LAmB 6 mg/kg/d alone, LAmB 3 mg/kg/d plus flucytosine 50 mg/kg/d, and LAmB 3 mg/kg/d plus flucytosine 100 mg/kg/d.
O'Connor, L; Livermore, J; Sharp, AD; Goodwin, J; Gregson, L; Howard, SJ; Felton, TW; Schwartz, JA; Neely, MN; Harrison, TS; Perfect, JR; Hope, WW
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