Clinical risk factors for primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.
RATIONALE: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is the main cause of early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results for PGD risk factors. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify donor, recipient, and perioperative risk factors for PGD. METHODS: We performed a 10-center prospective cohort study enrolled between March 2002 and December 2010 (the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group). The primary outcome was International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade 3 PGD at 48 or 72 hours post-transplant. The association of potential risk factors with PGD was analyzed using multivariable conditional logistic regression. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 1,255 patients from 10 centers were enrolled; 211 subjects (16.8%) developed grade 3 PGD. In multivariable models, independent risk factors for PGD were any history of donor smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6; P = 0.002); FiO2 during allograft reperfusion (OR, 1.1 per 10% increase in FiO2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; P = 0.01); single lung transplant (OR, 2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.3; P = 0.008); use of cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.2-5.3; P < 0.001); overweight (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7; P = 0.01) and obese (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9; P = 0.004) recipient body mass index; preoperative sarcoidosis (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.6; P = 0.03) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6-7.7; P = 0.002); and mean pulmonary artery pressure (OR, 1.3 per 10 mm Hg increase; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; P < 0.001). PGD was significantly associated with 90-day (relative risk, 4.8; absolute risk increase, 18%; P < 0.001) and 1-year (relative risk, 3; absolute risk increase, 23%; P < 0.001) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We identified grade 3 PGD risk factors, several of which are potentially modifiable and should be prioritized for future research aimed at preventative strategies. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00552357).
Diamond, JM; Lee, JC; Kawut, SM; Shah, RJ; Localio, AR; Bellamy, SL; Lederer, DJ; Cantu, E; Kohl, BA; Lama, VN; Bhorade, SM; Crespo, M; Demissie, E; Sonett, J; Wille, K; Orens, J; Shah, AS; Weinacker, A; Arcasoy, S; Shah, PD; Wilkes, DS; Ware, LB; Palmer, SM; Christie, JD; Lung Transplant Outcomes Group,
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