Cooperativity and binding in the mechanism of cytosolic phospholipase A2.
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) hydrolyzes the sn-2 ester of phospholipids and is believed to be responsible for the receptor-regulated release of arachidonic acid from phospholipid pools. The enzyme was assayed using vesicles containing arachidonate-containing phospholipid substrate, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoylphosphatidylcholine (PAPC) or 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoylphosphatidylinositol (SAPI), dispersed within vesicles of 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylmethanol (DMPM). We report here that the enzyme shows an apparent cooperative effect with respect to the mole fraction of arachidonate-containing phospholipids within these covesicles. The data can be fit to a modified Hill equation yielding Hill coefficients, n, of 2-3. This effect is unusual in that it is dependent on the nature of the sn-2 ester as opposed to the phosphoglycerol head group. This cooperativity is independent of both the concentration of glycerol, which greatly increases enzyme activity and stability, and the concentration of calcium, which facilitates the fusion of the covesicles. Surprisingly, 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PAPE) does not show the same cooperative effect, although the rate at which it is hydrolyzed is much greater when PAPC is present. Moreover, PAPE has a dissociation constant from the active site (KD* = 0.7 mol %) which is comparable to that of PAPC and SAPI (KD* values of 0.3 and 0.3 mol %, respectively). These results are consistent with the presence of an allosteric site that, when occupied, induces a change in the enzyme which facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis. If so, PAPC and SAPI, but not PAPE, must be able to bind to this allosteric site. Alternatively, this effect may result from changes in the physical nature of the bilayer which result upon increasing the bilayer concentration of arachidonate-containing phospholipids. This previously unobserved effect may represent another mechanism by which cells can regulate the activity of cPLA2.
Burke, JR; Witmer, MR; Tredup, J; Micanovic, R; Gregor, KR; Lahiri, J; Tramposch, KM; Villafranca, JJ
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