Doppler flow patterns in the right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt and neo-aorta in infants with single right ventricle anomalies: impact on outcome after initial staged palliations.
BACKGROUND: A Pediatric Heart Network trial compared outcomes in infants with single right ventricle anomalies undergoing Norwood procedures randomized to modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) or right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS). Doppler patterns in the neo-aorta and RVPAS may characterize physiologic changes after staged palliations that affect outcomes and right ventricular (RV) function. METHODS: Neo-aortic cardiac index (CI), retrograde fraction (RF) in the descending aorta and RVPAS conduit, RVPAS/neo-aortic systolic ejection time ratio, and systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio were measured early after Norwood, before stage II palliation, and at 14 months. These parameters were compared with transplantation-free survival, length of hospital stay, and RV functional indices. RESULTS: In 529 subjects (mean follow-up period, 3.0 ± 2.1 years), neo-aortic CI and descending aortic RF were significantly higher in the MBTS cohort after Norwood. The RVPAS RF averaged <25% at both interstage intervals. Higher pre-stage II descending aortic RF was correlated with lower RV ejection fraction (R = -0.24; P = .032) at 14 months for the MBTS cohort. Higher post-Norwood CI (5.6 vs 4.4 L/min/m(2), P = .04) and lower S/D ratio (1.40 vs 1.68, P = .01) were correlated with better interstage transplantation-free survival for the RVPAS cohort. No other Doppler flow patterns were correlated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: After the Norwood procedure, infants tolerated significant descending aortic RF (MBTS) and conduit RF (RVPAS), with little correlation with clinical outcomes or RV function. Neo-aortic CI, ejection time, and S/D ratios also had limited correlations with outcomes or RV function, but higher post-Norwood neo-aortic CI and lower S/D ratio were correlated with better interstage survival in those with RVPAS.
Frommelt, PC; Gerstenberger, E; Baffa, J; Border, WL; Bradley, TJ; Colan, S; Gorentz, J; Heydarian, H; John, JB; Lai, WW; Levine, J; Lu, JC; McCandless, RT; Miller, S; Nutting, A; Ohye, RG; Pearson, GD; Wong, PC; Cohen, MS; Pediatric Heart Network Investigators,
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