General resilience to cope with extreme events
Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research. © 2012 by the authors.
Carpenter, SR; Arrow, KJ; Barrett, S; Biggs, R; Brock, WA; Crépin, AS; Engström, G; Folke, C; Hughes, TP; Kautsky, N; Li, CZ; Mccarney, G; Meng, K; Mäler, KG; Polasky, S; Scheffer, M; Shogren, J; Sterner, T; Vincent, JR; Walker, B; Xepapadeas, A; de Zeeuw, A
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