General resilience to cope with extreme events


Journal Article

Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research. © 2012 by the authors.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Carpenter, SR; Arrow, KJ; Barrett, S; Biggs, R; Brock, WA; Crépin, AS; Engström, G; Folke, C; Hughes, TP; Kautsky, N; Li, CZ; Mccarney, G; Meng, K; Mäler, KG; Polasky, S; Scheffer, M; Shogren, J; Sterner, T; Vincent, JR; Walker, B; Xepapadeas, A; de Zeeuw, A

Published Date

  • December 1, 2012

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 4 / 12

Start / End Page

  • 3248 - 3259

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2071-1050

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3390/su4123248

Citation Source

  • Scopus