Visualizing nuclear migration during conidiophore development in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae: multinucleation of conidia occurs through direct migration of plural nuclei from phialides and confers greater viability and early germination in Aspergillus oryzae.
Nuclear migration is indispensable for normal growth, differentiation, and development, and has been studied in several fungi including Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. To better characterize nuclear movement and its consequences during conidiophore development, conidiation, and conidial germination, we performed confocal microscopy and time-lapse imaging on A. nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae strains expressing the histone H2B-EGFP fusion protein. Active trafficking of nuclei from a vesicle to a phialide and subsequently into a conidium provided the mechanistic basis for the formation of multinucleate conidia in A. oryzae. In particular, the first direct visual evidence on multinucleate conidium formation by the migration of nuclei from a phialide into the conidium, rather than by mitotic division in a newly formed conidium, was obtained. Interestingly, a statistical analysis on conidial germination revealed that conidia with more nuclei germinated earlier than those with fewer nuclei. Moreover, multinucleation of conidia conferred greater viability and resistance to UV-irradiation and freeze-thaw treatment.
Ishi, K; Maruyama, J-I; Juvvadi, PR; Nakajima, H; Kitamoto, K
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