Osteopenia and osteoporosis in pediatric patients after stem cell transplant.
As more patients are surviving the transplant experience, more children are coping with long-term side effects. Long-term side effects, such as osteopenia and osteoporosis, are not as well acknowledged in pediatric stem cell transplant survivors. Osteopenia and osteoporosis can lead to fractures, deformities, pain, and financial burden. There are many factors during and after a stem cell transplant that cause patients to be at an increased risk for osteopenia or osteoporosis. Nurses have the ability to prevent these potentially debilitating and progressive diseases and to provide adequate treatment to prevent further complications. Key features of the history, physical examination, and diagnostic imaging can assist with making a diagnosis of osteoporosis or osteopenia. Prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis involves both lifestyle modifications and medical management. Measures to prevent and treat bone loss are crucial. Transplant nurses must be knowledgeable regarding the risk factors and prevention and treatment strategies for osteopenia and osteoporosis.
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