Treatment of postoperative hypertension after coronary artery bypass surgery. Double-blind comparison of intravenous isradipine and sodium nitroprusside.
BACKGROUND: Hypertension commonly occurs after cardiac surgery and requires therapy to prevent the potentially deleterious effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: After coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 177 patients with elevated blood pressure > or = 90 mm Hg during the initial 6-hour postsurgical period were selected for this random blinded, parallel study to receive intravenous infusions of either isradipine (n = 90) or sodium nitroprusside (n = 87). Isradipine produced a statistically significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP, delta-23 mmHg) during a 90-minute treatment period. Target MAP (< or = 85 mmHg or a decrease of 10 mmHg, if baseline MAP was between 90 and 95 mmHg) was achieved in 94% of patients 30 minutes after initiation of isradipine infusion (total mean dose, 411 micrograms); target MAP was achieved in 75% of nitroprusside-treated patients (total mean dose, 1708 micrograms). The mean time to control MAP was 18 minutes for isradipine compared with 24 minutes for nitroprusside. Global smoothness in MAP control was graded on a scale of 0 (not controlled) to 5 (excellent). Approximately 76% of isradipine-treated patients received a rating of > or = 3 (mean score, 3.5); 40% of the sodium nitroprusside-treated patients achieved a score of > or = 3 (mean score, 2.0). Both isradipine and nitroprusside produced statistically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, a decrease in systemic vascular resistance, and increases in heart rate, cardiac index, and stroke volume index. Isradipine produced no significant decreases in pulmonary artery occlusion wedge pressure compared with nitroprusside. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous isradipine was effective and well tolerated in patients with hypertension after CABG and offers an additional therapeutic option to treat patients after cardiac surgery.
Leslie, J; Brister, N; Levy, JH; Yared, JP; Marty, A; Martin, H; Hines, R; Savino, J; Cohen, M
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