Race and sex differences in thrombogenicity: risk of ischemic events following coronary stenting.
Race and sex affect thrombogenicity. We have demonstrated that platelet-fibrin clot characteristics can be used to stratify patients for risk of ischemic events following percutaneous coronary intervention. We investigated race and sex differences in thrombogenicty and the relation to ischemic risk in 252 consecutive African-American and Caucasian men and women undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Platelet-fibrin clot characteristics were measured using the Thrombelastograph Hemostasis System. The incidence of adverse ischemic events was assessed over a 6-month follow-up period. Overall, 40 ischemic events (15.9%) occurred. Adverse events were higher in African-Americans than Caucasians (P = 0.14), and in women than men (P = 0.004). The incidence was highest in African-American women (37.5%) and lowest in African-American men (6.5%). Measured Thrombelastograph parameters were significantly different between ischemic and nonischemic patients (P < 0.05). African-American women in the ischemic group exhibited higher thrombogenicity than the other race and sex groups (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression identified platelet-fibrin mediated clot strength (relative risk 2.52, P = 0.017) and sex (relative risk 2.56, P = 0.009) as significant independent predictors of ischemic events 6 months postpercutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombogenicity is a novel measurable cardiovascular risk factor that varies by race and sex, is highest in African-American women, and independently predicts the frequency of ischemic events following percutaneous coronary intervention. Point-of-service measurements of platelet-fibrin clot characteristics may lead to more intensified antithrombotic therapy and reduced mortality in selected patients.
Gurbel, PA; Bliden, KP; Cohen, E; Navickas, IA; Singla, A; Antonino, MJ; Fissha, M; Kreutz, RP; Bassi, AK; Tantry, US
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