Radiation exposure in urology: a genitourinary catalogue for diagnostic imaging.
PURPOSE: Computerized tomography use increased exponentially in the last 3 decades, and it is commonly used to evaluate many urological conditions. Ionizing radiation exposure from medical imaging is linked to the risk of malignancy. We measured the organ and calculated effective doses of different studies to determine whether the dose-length product method is an accurate estimation of radiation exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anthropomorphic male phantom validated for human organ dosimetry measurements was used to determine radiation doses. High sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters were placed at 20 organ locations to measure specific organ doses. For each study the phantom was scanned 3 times using our institutional protocols. Organ doses were measured and effective doses were calculated on dosimetry. Effective doses measured by a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeter were compared to calculated effective doses derived from the dose-length product. RESULTS: The mean±SD effective dose on dosimetry for stone protocol, chest and abdominopelvic computerized tomography, computerized tomography urogram and renal cell carcinoma protocol computerized tomography was 3.04±0.34, 4.34±0.27, 5.19±0.64, 9.73±0.71 and 11.42±0.24 mSv, respectively. The calculated effective dose for these studies Was 3.33, 2.92, 5.84, 9.64 and 10.06 mSv, respectively (p=0.8478). CONCLUSIONS: The effective dose varies considerable for different urological computerized tomography studies. Renal stone protocol computerized tomography shows the lowest dose, and computerized tomography urogram and the renal cell carcinoma protocol accumulate the highest effective doses. The calculated effective dose derived from the dose-length product is a reasonable estimate of patient radiation exposure.
Neisius, A; Wang, AJ; Wang, C; Nguyen, G; Tsivian, M; Kuntz, NJ; Astroza, GM; Lowry, C; Toncheva, G; Yoshizumi, TT; Preminger, GM; Ferrandino, MN; Lipkin, ME
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