Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO
We show that N-doped ZnO films grown on sapphire can exhibit significant (∼1018 cm-3) room-temperature p-type behavior when sufficient nitrogen (N) is incorporated and the material is annealed appropriately. Substitutional N on the oxygen (O) sublattice is a deep acceptor; however, shallow acceptor complexes involve N, H, and zinc vacancies (V Zn). Combining secondary ion mass spectrometry, Raman-scattering, photoluminescence, and Hall-effect data, we establish the evolution of N from its initial incorporation on a Zn site to a final shallow acceptor complex VZn-NO-H with an ionization energy of ca. 130 meV. This complex is responsible for the observed p-type behavior. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Reynolds, JG; Reynolds, CL; Mohanta, A; Muth, JF; Rowe, JE; Everitt, HO; Aspnes, DE
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