Trends in the association of parental history of obesity over 60 years.
OBJECTIVE: The association of familial as compared to genetic factors in the current obesogenic environment, compared with earlier, leaner time periods, is uncertain. METHODS: Participants from the Framingham Heart Study were classified according to parental obesity status in the Original, Offspring, and Third Generation cohorts; mean BMI levels were estimated and we compared the association of parental history across generations. Finally, a genetic risk score comprised of 32 well-replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms for BMI was examined in association with BMI levels in 1948, 1971, and 2002. RESULTS: BMI was 1.49 kg/m2 higher per each affected parent among the Offspring, and increased to 2.09 kg/m2 higher among the Third Generation participants (P-value for the cohort comparison=0.007). Parental history of obesity was associated with increased weight gain (P < 0.0001) and incident obesity (P = 0.009). Despite a stronger association of parental obesity with offspring BMI in more contemporary time periods, we observed no change in the effect size of a BMI genetic risk score from 1948 to 2002 (P = 0.11 for test of trend across the time periods). CONCLUSIONS: The association of parental obesity has become stronger in more contemporary time period, whereas the association of a BMI genetic risk score has not changed.
Fox, CS; Pencina, MJ; Heard-Costa, NL; Shrader, P; Jaquish, C; O'Donnell, CJ; Vasan, RS; Cupples, LA; D'Agostino, RB
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