Research on teaching methods.
Research on teaching methods in nursing education was categorized into studies on media, CAI, and other nontraditional instructional strategies. While the research differed, some generalizations may be made from the findings. Multimedia, whether it is used for individual or group instruction, is at least as effective as traditional instruction (lecture and lecture-discussion) in promoting cognitive learning, retention of knowledge, and performance. Further study is needed to identify variables that may influence learning and retention. While learner attitudes toward mediated instruction tended to be positive, investigators failed to control for the effect of novelty. Control over intervening variables was lacking in the majority of studies as well. Research indicated that CAI is as effective as other teaching methods in terms of knowledge gain and retention. Attitudes toward CAI tended to be favorable, with similar problems in measurement as those evidenced in studies of media. Chang (1986) also recommends that future research examine the impact of computer-video interactive instruction on students, faculty, and settings. Research is needed on experimental teaching methods, strategies for teaching problem solving and clinical judgment, and ways of improving the traditional lecture and discussion. Limited research in these areas makes generalizations impossible. There is a particular need for research on how to teach students the diagnostic reasoning process and encourage critical thinking, both in terms of appropriate teaching methods and the way in which those strategies should be used. It is interesting that few researchers studied lecture and lecture-discussion except as comparable teaching methods for research on other strategies. Additional research questions may be generated on lecture and discussion in relation to promoting concept learning, an understanding of nursing and other theories, transfer of knowledge, and development of cognitive skills. Few studies attempted to identify variables that may influence learning, particularly characteristics of the learner. Only six investigators addressed learning styles and their interactions with the teaching method and outcomes (Gillies, 1984; Goldsmith, 1984; Kirchhoff & Holzemer, 1979; Kissinger & Munjas, 1981; Norris, 1986; Stein et al., 1972). Research in the future needs to focus on the relationship of different learner characteristics, attributes of the teaching method, and learning outcomes. In addition, initial learning, retention, transfer to practice, and instructional time should be studied. Characteristics of the teacher and setting and relationship to the methodologies used and outcomes of instruction need investigation. Research should attempt to identify optimal conditions for learning and ways in which methods should be used for particular students, subject matter, and points in the nursing curriculum...
Start / End Page