A comparative analysis of bronchial stricture after lung transplantation in recipients with and without early acute rejection.
BACKGROUND: Risk factors and outcomes of bronchial stricture after lung transplantation are not well defined. An association between acute rejection and development of stricture has been suggested in small case series. We evaluated this relationship using a large national registry. METHODS: All lung transplantations between April 1994 and December 2008 per the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were analyzed. Generalized linear models were used to determine the association between early rejection and development of stricture after adjusting for potential confounders. The association of stricture with postoperative lung function and overall survival was also evaluated. RESULTS: Nine thousand three hundred thirty-five patients were included for analysis. The incidence of stricture was 11.5% (1,077/9,335), with no significant change in incidence during the study period (P=0.13). Early rejection was associated with a significantly greater incidence of stricture (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.61; p<0.0001). Male sex, restrictive lung disease, and pretransplantation requirement for hospitalization were also associated with stricture. Those who experienced stricture had a lower postoperative peak percent predicted forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) (median 74% versus 86% for bilateral transplants only; p<0.0001), shorter unadjusted survival (median 6.09 versus 6.82 years; p<0.001) and increased risk of death after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23; p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Early rejection is associated with an increased incidence of stricture. Recipients with stricture demonstrate worse postoperative lung function and survival. Prospective studies may be warranted to further assess causality and the potential for coordinated rejection and stricture surveillance strategies to improve postoperative outcomes.
Castleberry, AW; Worni, M; Kuchibhatla, M; Lin, SS; Snyder, LD; Shofer, SL; Palmer, SM; Pietrobon, R; Davis, RD; Hartwig, MG
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