Incremental value of rare genetic variants for the prediction of multifactorial diseases.
BACKGROUND: It is often assumed that rare genetic variants will improve available risk prediction scores. We aimed to estimate the added predictive ability of rare variants for risk prediction of common diseases in hypothetical scenarios. METHODS: In simulated data, we constructed risk models with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) ranging between 0.50 and 0.95, to which we added a single variant representing the cumulative frequency and effect (odds ratio, OR) of multiple rare variants. The frequency of the rare variant ranged between 0.0001 and 0.01 and the OR between 2 and 10. We assessed the resulting AUC, increment in AUC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), net reclassification improvement (NRI(>0.01)) and categorical NRI. The analyses were illustrated by a simulation of atrial fibrillation risk prediction based on a published clinical risk model. RESULTS: We observed minimal improvement in AUC with the addition of rare variants. All measures increased with the frequency and OR of the variant, but maximum increment in AUC remained below 0.05. Increment in AUC and NRI(>0.01) decreased with higher AUC of the baseline model, whereas IDI remained constant. In the atrial fibrillation example, the maximum increment in AUC was 0.02 for a variant with frequency = 0.01 and OR = 10. IDI and NRI showed at most minimal increase for variants with frequency greater than or equal to 0.005 and OR greater than or equal to 5. CONCLUSIONS: Since rare variants are present in only a minority of affected individuals, their predictive ability is generally low at the population level. To improve the predictive ability of clinical risk models for complex diseases, genetic variants must be common and have substantial effect on disease risk.
Mihaescu, R; Pencina, MJ; Alonso, A; Lunetta, KL; Heckbert, SR; Benjamin, EJ; Janssens, ACJW
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