The effects of leaf area density variation on the particle collection efficiency in the size range of ultrafine particles (UFP).
Carbonaceous particles were generated during a "sooting burn" experiment to explore how heterogeneity in horizontal leaf area density (LAD) within the canopy impacts the ultrafine particle (UFP) collection efficiency at the branch-scale. To address this goal, wind tunnel experiments and a particle-size resolving model, which couples the turbulent flow field within the vegetated volume and the collection efficiency, were presented. Three scenarios were examined in a wind-tunnel packed with Juniperus chinensis branches: An LAD that was uniformly distributed, linearly increasing and linearly decreasing along the longitudinal or mean wind direction. The concentration measurements were conducted at multiple locations within the vegetated volume to evaluate the performance of the proposed model needed in discerning the role of LAD heterogeneity on UFP collection. Differences not exceeding 20% were found between modeled and measured concentration for all particle sizes across a wide range of wind speeds. The overall particle collection efficiency was found to be primarily governed by the spatially integrated LAD when differences in aerodynamic attributes (e.g., foliage drag) were accounted for. When combined with earlier studies, the results suggest that one parameter linking the laminar boundary layer conductance to the Schmidt number depends on particle size.
Huang, C-W; Lin, M-Y; Khlystov, A; Katul, G
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